The Ancient Egyptian civilisation was one of the most sophisticated cultures of the ancient world and lasted for over three thousand years. As a result, the Ancient Egyptians were the first society to invent a great many different things that we take for granted today.
They were the first society with a keen sense of mathematics and geometry, and it was this which allowed them to build huge pyramids. They also produced the first paper-like material for writing on. This was called papyrus and was made from the papyrus reeds that grew along the banks of the River Nile.
Also, by charting the progress of the sun, they were able to produce the first solar calendar, based on a 365-day year. They divided the year into twelve months of 30 days each, with five extra days at the end.
As well as this, they introduced numerous innovations into farming and industry, such as the ox-drawn plough, while in the field of combat they invented the first catapults and siege towers.
Moreover, their interest in preserving the bodies of the dead for their funerary practices allowed them to become accomplished doctors and medical professionals, more advanced than anything that would be seen elsewhere until centuries later.